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Written Works

Here you will find papers and reports I have written that I find are most noteworthy. Click on the buttons below to open the PDF file in another window. 

The Impact of Influencer Marketing: A Relationship Defined by Persuasion

Social Media's Biggest Threats to Kids and Teens

The Family Stone: An Interpersonal Communication Analysis

Habitat For Humanity Organization Rundown

and Development Proposal

Personality Magazine Cover and Explanation

Nonverbal Behavior Self Analysis

"And Still I Rise" Entrepreneurial Journalism Project

Fake News Solution Report

Fake News Solution Report

           Fake news is a global epidemic that is a threat to democracy, journalism, and economics. (Dhir, Salo, Singh,Talwar, Virk 1) Recent developments in global digitation allow mass media users to create fake news with emotional pull for a profit. Social media, television broadcasts, and advertisements are main sources of fake news. Advancements in technology have allowed content creators, advertisers, and journalists to create their own content and share it with the rest of the world. (Gershon, 221) Anyone can make content online which can lead to fake news. Fake news is dangerous and can lead to global confusion when information is not clear about events happening around the world. Fake news can induce fear among the public causing people to believe it and act on it. (Dhir, Salo, Singh,Talwar, Virk 1)

Fake News

Fake news is news content that is created and shared with the intention to deliberately persuade consumers to accept false beliefs that are shared to forward specific agendas. (Dhir, Salo, Singh,Talwar, Virk 1) The types of fake news:

 

False Connection: Headlines, visuals, and/or captions that do not support the content it is correlated with. (Bakir, McStay, 1)

Example: Online CNBC News article titled, Trump says there’s no question the coronavirus ‘will go away.’(Higgins-Dunn, 1) The article explains why the headline is false and the science behind the coronavirus. (Higgins Dunn, 1) This makes the headline misleading. 

 

False Context: Genuine content shared with false contextual information. (Bakir, McStay, 1)

Example: “Coronavirus Today” article headline states sunlight will cure the coronavirus. The article contains medical jargon stating sunlight’s effects on a drop of the virus. (Carlson, Hawbaker, Reiter, 1) The headline and article don’t match up on the same level.

Manipulated Content: Genuine content, information, and/or imagery manipulated to deceive others. (Bakir, McStay, 1)  

Example: Altered video of Donald Trump not coughing after being diagnosed with the coronavirus. (Bump, 1) This misleads viewers to think that the coronavirus is not as serious as it is.

Misleading Content: Content created to mislead and frame issues and individuals. (Bakir, McStay, 1)

Example: Map shared by The Sun before the coronavirus was researched showing how the virus spreads. (Coronavirus: How a misleading, 1) The map was misleading because information was not yet available about the virus. (Coronavirus: How a misleading, 1)

Imposter Content: Genuine sources that are impersonated by another source. (Bakir, McStay, 1)

Example: Phishers sent out emails claiming to be the World Health Organization sharing false information about the coronavirus to gather online user’s personal information. (Zorz, 1)

Fabricated Content: 100% false content designed to deceive or harm others. (Bakir, McStay, 1)

Example: Trish Regan’s tweet about her FOX News broadcast claiming that the coronavirus was an impeachment stunt. (Regan, 1) This tweet was created after scientists had confirmed the virus’s legitimacy.(Regan, 1)

Satire/Parody: Content containing the potential to fool others with no intention to cause harm. (Bakir, McStay, 1)

Example: James Corden’s ‘Maybe I’m Immune’ song based off Donald Trump’s statements about his coronavirus diagnosis. This song was written for The Late Late Show with James Corden and was meant for entertainment purposes. (Moreau, 1)

Background/Causes

Fake news is created to manipulate and deceive publics. The media is often influenced by media giants who are seeking profit. Business owners and advertisers frame content and jeopardize their credibility to make money by feeding false information to consumers. (Hanson, 65) The information is then shared through media, entering a wide network of people who also share information. News outlets who create fake news are likely to use emotional tie-ins to motivate users to click on their content. (Bakir, McStay, 1)

           

Digitalization has affected the way the world receives news and how governments are involved with shared media. Governments move too slowly to keep up with the digital economy causing tech companies to skip over them when making decisions about content sharing. (Tercek, 196) News sharing outlets are no help. Because of digitalization and the 24-hour news cycle, quality journalistic resources have been spread thin and there is not enough time for fact checking. (Gershon, 221) (Bakir, McStay, 1) News sources must hold themselves accountable to produce credible information. (Glader, 1) There is a fight for credibility from news sources and governments for political and economic gain. (Dhir, Salo, Singh,Talwar, Virk 1)

 

Solutions

In order to get shared information under control in the media, we must put trust in news organizations who have the necessary resources to defend their work and have the backing of an organization who values ethical news reporting (Gershon, 221) and apply the Society of Professional Journalist’s Code of Ethics, (SPJ Code of Ethics, 1) the American Press Institute’s Elements of Journalism, (The elements of journalism, 1) and the Associated Press News Values and Principles (News Values and Principles, 1) to their work. Early detection of fake news is important and developing social bots to detect it is the key to finding fake news. (Ding, Guo, Liang, Yao, Yu, 26) Developing software to create social fingerprints will be useful for screening user credibility. Practicing responsible privacy when gathering personal information about users without applying behavioral advertising for profit will be important. (Bakir, McStay, 1) Finally, removing affective content and correcting it while also letting consumers know when information has been changed is crucial. (Bakir, McStay, 1)

Innovative Ideas

International Board of Digitalization: A board staffed by credible personnel from all over the world in the media and technology industries to watch over credibility practices of news media on a global scale. They will follow set guidelines from different ethics policies pertaining to journalism to decide what counts as journalism and detect fake news.

Online News Verification Program: An online program that uses social bots and follows the International Board of Digitalization’s guidelines that online content creators can submit their creations to be verified as credible. This program will also verify users and platforms as credible. The site will also offer education of how to detect fake news, produce credible content, protect yourself from media giants.

Conclusion

With responsible privacy practices and clear understanding about what information is credible, the fake news epidemic will be over in no time. (Bakir, McStay, 1) Ethical digital sharing education about fake news and how it circulates will help media consumers on a global scale. Credibility is the key to the success of any global company, public figure, or content creator. (Ding, Guo, Liang, Yao, Yu, 26) The global economy will flourish from the practice of correcting fake news and ending the spread of fake news.

Works Cited

The Associate Press. "News Values and Principles: AP." Associated Press. 30 Nov. 2017. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Bakir, Vian, and Andrew McStay. "Fake News and the Economy of Emotions: Problems, Causes, Solutions." Digital Journalism. Taylor & Francis, 04 Aug. 2017. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Bump, Philip. "Analysis | How the White House Is Trying to Convince America That Trump's Illness Isn't a Big Deal." The Washington Post. WP Company, 04 Oct. 2020. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Carlson, Robert, MD, Danielle Reiter, RN, and Holly Hawbaker. "How Fast Does Sunlight Kill Coronavirus?" - Coronavirus Today. 22 May 2020. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

"The Elements of Journalism." American Press Institute. 15 July 2019. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Gershon, Richard A. "Chapter 12, Digital News Reporting, Computer Tablets, and the New Journalism." Digital Media and Innovation: Management and Design Strategies in Communication. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2017. 221. Print.

Glader, Paul. "10 Journalism Brands Where You Find Real Facts Rather Than Alternative Facts." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 10 Feb. 2017. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Guo, Bin, Yasan Ding, Lina Yao, Yunji Liang, and Zhiwen Yu. "The Future of False Information Detection on Social Media." ACM Computing Surveys 53.4 (2020): 1-36. ACM Digital Library. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Hanson, Ralph E. "Chapter 3, The Media Business- Consolidation, Globalization and the Long Tail." Mass Communication: Living in a Media World. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2019. 65. Print.

Higgins-Dunn, Noah. "Trump Says There's No Question the Coronavirus 'will Go Away'." CNBC. CNBC, 05 Aug. 2020. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Moreau, Jordan. "James Corden Parodies Trump's Coronavirus Diagnosis With 'Maybe I'm Immune' Song." Variety. Variety, 07 Oct. 2020. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Regan, Trish. "We've Reached a Tipping Point. The Chorus of Hate Being Leveled at #PresidentTrump Is Nearing a Crescendo as #Dems Blame Him-and Only Him-for #coronavirus - a #virus That Originated Halfway around the World! This Is Yet Another Attempt to #impeach THE PRESIDENT. #TrishRegan Pic.twitter.com/nU3P4zcONA." Twitter. Twitter, 10 Mar. 2020. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

SPJ Code of Ethics. "SPJ Code of Ethics - Society of Professional Journalists." Society of Professional Journalists - Improving and Protecting Journalism since 1909. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Talwar, Shalini, Amandeep Dhir, Dilraj Singh, Gurnam Singh Virk, and Jari Salo. "Sharing of Fake News on Social Media: Application of the Honeycomb Framework and the Third-person Effect Hypothesis." Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 57 (2020): 102197. ScienceDirect. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Team, Reality Check. "Coronavirus: How a Misleading Map Went Global." BBC News. BBC, 19 Feb. 2020. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Tercek, Robert. "Chapter 8, The Rise of the Peer-To-Peer Economy." Vaporized. New York, United States: Greystone, 2015. 196. Print.

Zorz, Zeljka, and February 7. "Phishers Impersonate WHO, Exploit Coronavirus-related Anxiety." Help Net Security. 10 Mar. 2020. Web. 16 Oct. 2020.

Entrepreneurial Journalism Project “And Still I Rise” Paper Overview

Introduction/Branding

 

And Still I Rise, Website and Blog is a personal blog surrounding the everyday challenges of a person with mental illness. Written in a hybrid style of feature and educational writing, blog content will offer an honest, fresh, and personal perspective on mental health. (Gershon, 197) Other media offered on the site include videos, a photo gallery, social media posts, and a podcast. (Briggs, 222) All content will be factual, cited, (Gershon, 214), and created with the users’ emotionality in mind due to the generation of inspiration, warmth, and amusement being positively correlated with specific ads and content displays. (Tellis, 12) Other special features include helpful links and a resource page. This practice will also tend to the sensitive nature of the topics being discussed. (Neck, 460) The site is meant to show support to those who struggle with mental illness. It will be an online safe place to be a free spirit. (Gershon, 93) A forum will be provided for users to engage in community discussion. (Briggs, 229)

 

The site will be accessible via mobile phone and computer and will allow direct connection to social media apps (Briggs, 217) the company is represented on. With mobile app creation decreasing, mobile sites are more cost-effective and are preferred by consumers. (Briggs, 241) The site’s content and design will communicate the company’s values: safety, acceptance, and personal growth. (Gershon, 214) Content will be shared in different forms of media created and headlined by myself, future business partners, mental health specialists, and special guests. And Still I Rise will be the online community that provides and defines the online search for wellness through journalistic measures and individual understanding. (Neck, 19) The best practices of traditional journalism, fairness, accuracy, storytelling, and deep investigations will be found within online content along with the best tools in the digital world, speed, transparency, and engagement offered from the platform (Gershon, 214) to create a trustworthy look for the brand. (Chapter 4, 98)

Market Research/Target Audience

According to The National Institute of Mental Health, 1 in 5 adults in the United States experience a mental health issue each year. The same report stated that 21.4% of children ages 13 to 18 in the United States live with a severe mental illness. (Mental Illness) Mental Health America’s 2021 The State of Mental Health in America report stated that 23.6% of adults with a mental illness in the U.S. reported that they were not able to receive treatment due to costs, lack of insurance, and lack of available services. From January 2020 to September 2020, 850,004 people passed online anxiety and depression screen tests offered by Mental Health America showing a 93% increase in anxiety symptoms and a 62% increase in depression symptoms from 2019. 38% of the testers who received a positive score for any type of mental illness were ages 11 to 17. 70.4% of all positive screeners claimed to be suffering from loneliness and/or isolation leading them to online support. This report claims the number of people looking for mental health resources and support online is at a historical high. (Reinert)

 

Research shows that all internet users spend an average of 2 hours and 22 minutes online per day with young adults ages 16 through 24 leading the charge averaging at 3 hours per day. (Matev) A typical social media user is present on 9 online platforms. (G.) This research confirms that there is an opportunity and a need for a mental health based journalistic platform and a willing audience looking for online resources and support. Millennials have started “paving the way” for those who want to find mental health help online. (Greenstein) Some internet users are responding to social media trends such as using hashtags on Twitter to embrace their mental health journey online. (Lofton) And Still I Rise’s functions, content, and overall message caters to all users mentioned based on online behavior. And Still I Rise will have the most success targeting the mental health community, those interested in mental health support, Generation Z, Millennials, and internet and social media users ages 13 to 35. Opinion leaders (Gershon, 109) who will help the company go viral are often younger and more socially and digitally aware than other internet users (Wadbring, 145) so targeting a younger audience from the start will build the brand’s online community. (Gershon, 162)

Funding/Development

And Still I Rise will be built on the platform WordPress, a blogging website that allows users to build their blog by offering special features, easy formatting, customization, and ownership of a domain name for a monthly subscription fee. (Briggs, 217-218) And Still I Rise will be funded out of my own pocket. I plan to ask for donations on the site in exchange for a free downloadable introductory gift. (Neck, 270) I plan to start crowdfunding campaigns with Kickstarter, (Tercek, 186) GoFundMe Charity, (Moss), and Chuffed, a crowdfunding platform built specifically for socially conscious projects. (Chuffed) I will also be pitching my idea to investors. This would include engaging in friends-and-family funding (Chapter 6,185) and pitching to mental health professionals with whom I plan to offer a business collaboration in exchange for their investment. (Gershon, 237) I also plan to develop partnerships with other online mental health platforms to gain recognition and practice boundary spanning. (Gershon, 26) All investors, donors, and partners will be named and thanked on the site.

Social Media/Marketing/Advertising

And Still I Rise will utilize social media as a platform to market and advertise the company while forming connections within virtual communities. (Gershon, 148) The social media platforms Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Pinterest will be linked to the main site. (G.) Instagram will be utilized for microblogging and educational purposes. (Gershon, 164) Twitter will be used to build a community and Facebook will be used for community engagement. (Briggs, 231) YouTube will be used for video blogging, building a community, and community engagement. (Briggs, 229) Pinterest’s software will serve as an online hub that will house content related to And Still I Rise allowing users to find the company online and see it in a more personalized light. (Briggs, 239) All social media posts will be organized beforehand using a media plan to acquire online feedback and content interactions. The site’s traffic and social media interactions will be tracked through Google Analytics to gain audience information and psychographic data. (Chapter 4, 98) The information collected will ultimately be used to create advertisements and content that will draw in our audience based on their interests and online behaviors. (Briggs, 236). Click-through ads will be placed on social media and other sites that share the goal of personal wellness to attract readers. (Chapter 4, 101) Viral marketing (Gershon, 109) will be used through direct marketing ads and native advertisements within blog and social media content. (Chapter 4, 102) Users will have the option to sign up for emailed company updates and a company newsletter. (Briggs, 224)

Business Model/Revenue

And Still I Rise will operate as a multiparty business. (Neck, 260) All blog content and social media content will be free to view which will attract users and advertisers. (Chapter 13, 416) In order to produce revenue, And Still I Rise will monetize their social media accounts and will have a partnership with Patreon, a platform that allows users who pay a monthly fee for access to exclusive content, community, and an inside look into the creative process. (Patreon) And Still I Rise will also have an online store on the site which will sell And Still I Rise merchandise including clothing, journals, and mugs which will be sold directly to customers with a one-time fee. (Neck, 253) There will a subscription available in the online store offering a monthly Self-Help Box Item. A free box will be shipped to the consumer at sign-up. All items in the online store will be priced based on cost-led and competition-led pricing. (Neck, 269, 272)

The site will offer space for paid media and will offer advertising services like native advertisements. In these cases, And Still I Rise would seek out a possible sponsorship opportunity and/or become an advertising service. (Chapter 4, 95) And Still I Rise will abide by a Position Based Attribution Model which will allow the company to make a profit when the site sends users to other online platforms like social media outlets, mental health professional’s websites, other online resources, and advertiser’s sites. Credit is assigned to all platforms involved in a transaction or the viewing of online content. (Su)

Innovation Strategy

And Still I Rise will offer a variety of free and paid entertainment media, an online community, transparent media, and mental health advice and resources. The company will remain aware of effectuation (Neck, 9) and will make business plans flexible as the company grows. The site will function as a social system (Gershon, 94) and communication channel and will keep the interest of its members at heart as time goes on. (Gershon, 93) Media plans will be reviewed monthly as market research (Chapter 4, 95) and traffic tracking continues. (Briggs, 236) All resistances from users and within the company will be reviewed and dealt with innovatively and professionally. (Chapter 4, 102) Failing portions of the company will either be discontinued to give more focus to the rest of the company or will be revitalized and reintroduced to the public.

Conclusion

As digitalization has set into our society, we have transferred our lives from in-person to online. (Tercek, 37) Services that were once sought out in a doctor’s office can now be found with the touch of a button. (Tercek, 220) The privacy that used to be affiliated with mental health in our society has gone public as more people suffer from mental illness each year. (Mental Illness) And Still I Rise recognizes this social issue and can offer a high-tech, high-touch (Gershon,155) approach by taking advantage of our reality. The online experience of searching for mental health support will be forever changed when And Still I Rise reaches its height and starts saving lives. And Still I Rise will help users who are struggling with their mental health grow through what they go through.

 

Works Cited

“Best Way for Artists and Creators to Get Sustainable Income and Connect with Fans.” Patreon, www.patreon.com/.

Briggs, Mark. “Chapter 7, Harness the Technology.” pp. 217–241.

“Chapter 11, Facebook: Social Media and Business Strategy.” Digital Media and Innovation: Management and Design Strategies in Communication, by Richard A. Gershon, SAGE, 2017, p. 197.

“Chapter 12, Digital News Reporting, Computer Tablets, and the New Journalism.” Digital Media and Innovation: Management and Design Strategies in Communication, by Richard A. Gershon, SAGE, 2017, p. 214.

“Chapter 13, Hacker Culture.” Digital Media and Innovation: Management and Design Strategies in Communication, by Richard A. Gershon, SAGE, 2017, p. 237.

“Chapter 13, Media Economics and the Global Marketplace.” p. 416.

“Chapter 2, Business Model Innovation.” Digital Media and Innovation: Management and Design Strategies in Communication, by Richard A. Gershon, SAGE, 2017, p. 26.

“Chapter 2, From Print To Pixels.” Vaporized, by Robert Tercek, Greystone Books, 2015, p. 37.

“Chapter 4, Financing and Shaping the Media.” pp. 95–102.

“Chapter 6, Build Your Business Know-How.” p. 185.

“Chapter 6, The Diffusion of Innovation Revisited.” Digital Media and Innovation: Management and Design Strategies in Communication, by Richard A. Gershon, SAGE, 2017, pp. 93–109.

“Chapter 8, Digital Media and Innovation 1.” Digital Media and Innovation: Management and Design Strategies in Communication, by Richard A. Gershon, SAGE, 2017, pp. 148–155.

“Chapter 8, The Rise of the Peer-To-Peer Economy.” Vaporized, by Robert Tercek, Greystone Books, 2015, p. 186.

“Chapter 9, Digital Media and Innovation 2.” Digital Media and Innovation: Management and Design Strategies in Communication, by Richard A. Gershon, SAGE, 2017, pp. 162–164.

“Chapter 9, Robotics and the Vaporization of Labor.” Vaporized, by Robert Tercek, Greystone Books, 2015, p. 220.

“Crowdfunding for #Mental Health and Depression Campaigns.” Chuffed.org, chuffed.org/movement/mental-health-and-depression.

G, Nick. “Latest Social Media Marketing Statistics in 2020 [Updated].” Review42, 21 Nov. 2020, review42.com/social-media-marketing-statistics/.

Greenstein, Luna. “How the Digital Age Has Impacted Mental Health Care.” NAMI, nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/February-2019/How-the-Digital-Age-Has-Impacted-Mental-Health-Care.

Lofton, Tarena. “Coming Out About Mental Health On Social Media.” Kaiser Health News, 26 Aug. 2019, khn.org/news/coming-out-about-mental-health-on-social-media/.

Matev, Denis. “How Much Time Do People Spend on Social Media in 2020?” Review42, 21 Nov. 2020, review42.com/how-much-time-do-people-spend-on-social-media/.

“Mental Illness.” National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/mental-illness.shtml.

Moss, Angelique. “Top 5 Crowdfunding Platforms That Nonprofits, Social Causes Can Use.” Medium, The Startup, 5 Sept. 2018, medium.com/swlh/top-5-crowdfunding-platforms-that-nonprofits-social-causes-can-use-8e3dad9c29c7.

Neck. “Chapter 1, Entrepreneurship- A Global Social Movement.” pp. 9–19.

Neck. “Chapter 10, Creating Revenue Models.” pp. 253–272.

Neck. “Chapter 16, Marketing and Pitching Your Idea.” p. 460.

Reinert, Maddy, et al. “2021 State of Mental Health in America.” Mental Health America National, 2020, mhanational.org/sites/default/files/2021%20State%20of%20Mental%20Health%20in%20America_0.pdf.

Su, Bill. “An In-Depth Look at Attribution Modeling in Digital Marketing.” Medium, Analytics for Humans, 27 Nov. 2018, medium.com/analytics-for-humans/an-in-depth-look-at-attribution-modeling-in-digital-marketing-2ed0170c6f3b.

Tellis, Gerard J., et al. “What Drives Virality (Sharing) of Online Digital Content? The Critical Role of Information, Emotion, and Brand Prominence.” Journal of Marketing, vol. 83, no. 4, 2019, p. 12., doi:10.1177/0022242919841034.

Wadbring, Ingela. “Going Viral: News Sharing and Shared News in Social Media.” Observatorio (OBS*), vol. 10, no. 4, 2016, p. 145., doi:10.15847/obsobs1042016936.

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